Fact-sheet on Mexico
Official Name: United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos)
Area: 1,964,375 sq km (World’s 14th largest)
Location: South of USA (common border 3,153 km), North of Guatemala (956 km) & Belize (193 km); between Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico (and Atlantic Ocean)
Population: 123.8 million (December 2014 estimate) (World’s 12th largest)
Administrative Divisions: 31 States (Provincias) and 1 Federal District (Distrito Federal)
Capital: Mexico City (Ciudad de México / México D.F.); Population: 23 million (DF proper: 9 Million, Rest of Metropolitan area: 14 Million)
Other Main Cities: Guadalajara, Monterrey, León, Tijuana, Cancún, Acapulco, Puebla
Climate: Mexico has a most diverse climate. Mexico City has a pleasant ‘subtropical highland climate with a moderate winter and comfortably cool rest of the year.
Currency: (Mexican) Peso or MXN; freely convertible;1 US$=MXN 15.25 (31.03.2015)
Time Zone: Mexico City, and most of the country, UTC (-) 6 hrs, with clocks advanced by 1 hour between April-October as Daylight Saving Time.
Languages: Spanish (92.7%); 66 other indigenous languages; English very limited use.
Religions: Vast majority Roman Catholic; rest follow indigenous beliefs or are agnostics.
Life expectancy: Overall: 75.43; Male: 72.67; Female: 78.32 (2014 est. CIA World book)
Literacy: 94% (Males: 94.8%, Females: 92.3%) (2014 figures)
History: Five major and rich ancient indigenous civilisations, including Olmec, Maya, and Aztec flourished here until Spaniards conquered and colonised it in 1521 as ‘New Spain’; Mexican independence was declared in 1810; followed by a tumultuous century including US annexation of vast Mexican territories in 1848, the memorable reformist rule of Benito Juarez, the French conquest and brief rule, and long autocratic regime of Porfirio Diaz, culminating in a Revolution from 1910; present Constitution adopted in 1917; Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled for 71 years till losing to National Action Party (PAN) in 2000; PRI came back in power in 2012 with Enrique Peña Nieto as the current President.
Polity: Federal Democratic Republic; President both HoS/G, directly elected for a single 6-year term; Legislature comprises Senate (128 members) and Chamber of Deputies (500); universal suffrage 18 years and above; presently PRI has 212 Deputies, PAN 114, and PRD 104; and 52, 28, 22 Senators respectively.
President: H.E. Mr. Enrique Peña Nieto
Foreign Minister: H.E. Ms. Claudia Ruiz Massieu Salinas